There are two basic types of meditation: concentrative meditation and mindfulness meditation. They share the intentional training of individuals’ attention and concentration, but the objects of that attention are different for each type. In concentrative meditation, practitioners learn how to cultivate one point of attention by focusing on a mantra, sound, visual image, object, or koan. For example, in transcendental meditation, students are taught to repeat a sound or phrase to focus and concentrate the mind. On the other hand, a Zen Master may give students a koan (i.e., a phrase or question to occupy the mind and cut through discursive thinking). Examples of koans include: “What was your face before your parents were born?” and “What is the sound of one hand clapping?” Other meditation methods are taught by having students focus on a single visual object, such as a candle or icon.